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In retirement planning, “the first hurdle for financial advisors to overcome is to help people comprehend and internalize risk, uncertainty, and ranges of possibilities,” Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe says. “That’s the toughest problem of all.” 

The Stanford University Graduate School of Business finance professor emeritus, 87, in 1996 co-founded Financial Engines, considered the first successful robo-advisor for 401(k) sponsors.

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