While the poor retirement preparedness of U.S.workers in general is common knowledge, there are specialchallenges facing women, minorities and millennials.

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Related: How plan sponsors can help retirement saverssucceed

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That’s according to a white paper from the Washington,D.C.-based Financial Services Roundtable, which pointed out thatwhile “[w]omen comprise 47 percent of the labor force in America,and women over 25 are nearly as likely to have earned a bachelor’sdegree as men — 29.6 percent of women compared to 30.4 percent ofmen” — that’s not an indication of parity in pay, with women’smedian weekly earnings for full-time wages and salaries only amountto approximately 81 percent of what men make.

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In fact, with 27 percent of women working only part time, andmany leaving the workplace to raise children or care for otherfamily members, their opportunities for earning and advancement arelimited.

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Related: Americans most anxious over unexpectedexpenses

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This has an effect on their retirement savings as well, despitethe fact that they actually need more money than men to prepare fora longer average lifespan — 87 years, compared with 84 — and thegreater likelihood that they will need to spend more over that timefor health care.

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But women aren’t saving enough, the paper said. Part-timeworkers aren’t usually eligible for retirement plans, and pensionbenefits are usually lower for women based on lower earnings.

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In addition, women don’t save at a high enough rate to coverretirement expenses: while 62 percent of women are offered a 401(k)or similar retirement plan, the paper said, and 76 percentparticipate, they only save at a rate of 7 percent of theirsalary.

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Minorities face challenges as well. The paper cited EconomicPolicy Institute figures indicating that only 26 percent ofHispanic families had savings in a retirement plan or IRA, comparedto 41 percent of black families, 65 percent of white families and58 percent of Asian families.

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And among minority households with retirement savings, 75percent have less than $10,000 and the median balance forretirement account assets is $30,000 for near retirees.

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Bureau of Labor Statistics figures indicate that 65 percent ofemployed Hispanic women and 59 percent of employed black women workin low-wage jobs including service, sales, and office occupations,and employed black and Hispanic men are also more likely to work inlow-wage jobs including construction, production, maintenance, andtransportation. While that means they’re also less likely to haveaccess to retirement plans, those aren’t the only challenges theyface.

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An Ariel/Hewitt study indicated that African-Americans andHispanics are more likely to borrow from retirement accounts, andalso stick with safer investments that offer less opportunity forgrowth. Both of these can also result in lower retirement savingsbalances.

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Millennials, for their part, have set debt repayment as theirtop priority. With student loan debt “crowding out otherinvestments,” the paper said that an average student debt of$53,000 “leads to a lifetime wealth loss of nearly $208,000”between reduced retirement savings and lower home equity.

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