Incarceration in the U.S. is highly correlated with socioeconomic status and it affects the retirement outlook of not just ex-cons but their older family members too.

Regardless of when they served time, Americans who have at some point been incarcerated suffer long-term effects on both work and retirement savings.

That’s according to a study from The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, which finds that Americans age 50 and older who have been behind bars at some point in their lives are more likely to have been unemployed in the recent past, to express anxiety about several aspects of retirement, and to have fewer sources of income for retirement than those who have not.

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