Door to doctor's office Average annual growth rates for out-of-pocket health expenses have increased for physician services since the introduction of the ACA, possibly because of increased use of out-of-network care.

Out-of-pocket spending for nearly all health care services has increased at a slower rate since the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010.

A new study reported by the JAMA Open Network analyzed trends in out-of-pocket spending over the past two decades, both before and after the ACA was enacted. Per capita out-of-pocket spending increased from $1,028 to $1,148 between 2000 and 2018. The average annual growth rate was 3.4% before and 1.9% after the ACA was passed. Total per capita health expenditures increased from $6,649 to $10,627 during the same period.

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